Sikatan tiran

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Tiran ( Tyrannidae ) adalah keluarga burung pengicau yang hidup di seluruh Amerika Utara dan Selatan. [1] Mereka dianggap sebagai keluarga burung terbesar yang diketahui ada di dunia, dengan lebih dari 400 spesies. Mereka adalah keluarga unggas yang paling beragam di setiap negara di benua Amerika, kecuali Amerika Serikat dan Kanada . Anggotanya sangat bervariasi dalam bentuk, pola, ukuran dan warna. Beberapa burung tiran mungkin secara dangkal mirip dengan sikatan Dunia Lama, yang diberi nama berdasarkan nama mereka tetapi tidak berkerabat dekat. Mereka adalah anggota subordo Tyranni (suboscines), yang tidak memiliki kemampuan vokal semerdu kebanyakan burung penyanyi lainnya. [2]

Sejumlah spesies yang sebelumnya termasuk dalam famili ini kini ditempatkan dalam famili Tityridae ( lihat Sistematika ). Sibley dan Alquist dalam taksonomi burung tahun 1990 mereka mempunyai genera Mionectes, Leptopogon, Pseudotriccus, Poecilotriccus, Taenotriccus, Hemitriccus, Todirostrum dan Corythopis sebagai keluarga terpisah Pipromorphidae, [3] namun meskipun genera ini masih dianggap dasar bagi sebagian besar genera keluarga, mereka bukanlah saudara terdekat satu sama lain. [3]

Sebagian besar, namun tidak semua, spesiesnya agak polos, dengan berbagai warna coklat, abu-abu, dan putih yang umum, sering kali memberikan kesan kamuflase pada tingkat tertentu. Pengecualian yang jelas termasuk sikatan merah-rona, tiran-rumput anekawarna dan beberapa spesies sikatan atau tiran yang seringkali berwarna kuning, hitam, putih dan/atau berkarat, dari Todirostrum, Hemitriccus dan genera Poecilotriccus . Beberapa spesies memiliki bagian bawah berwarna kuning cerah, mulai dari sikatan hias hingga kiskadi besar. Beberapa spesies mempunyai jambul tegak. Beberapa genera besar (yaitu Elaenia, Myiarchus, atau Empidonax ) cukup sulit dibedakan di lapangan karena kesamaan bulu dan beberapa dapat dibedakan dengan baik melalui suaranya. Perilaku mereka dapat bervariasi dari spesies seperti paruh-sekop yang berukuran kecil, pemalu dan hidup di bagian dalam hutan lebat hingga burung raja, yang berukuran relatif besar, berani, ingin tahu dan sering menghuni area terbuka dekat tempat tinggal manusia. Sebagian besar sikatan tiram hampir seluruhnya merupakan pemakan serangga (walaupun belum tentu berspesialisasi pada lalat ). Sikatan tiran sebagian besar merupakan pemakan oportunistik dan sering menangkap serangga terbang atau serangga arboreal yang mereka temui. Namun, makanannya bisa sangat bervariasi dan beberapa (seperti kiskadi besar) akan memakan buah atau vertebrata kecil (misalnya katak kecil).

Anggota keluarga terkecil adalah tiran-kerdil ekor-pendek dan tiran-kerdil topi-hitam dari genus Myiornis (spesies pertama biasanya dianggap rata-rata sedikit lebih kecil). Spesies ini mencapai panjang total 65–7 cm (25,6–2,8 in) dan berat 4 hingga 5 g (0,14 hingga 0,18 oz) . Dari segi panjang, mereka adalah burung pengicau terkecil di dunia, meskipun beberapa spesies burung pengicau Dunia Lama tampaknya menyaingi mereka dalam hal massa tubuh rata-rata yang sangat kecil, atau bahkan panjang total. [4] Ukurannya yang sangat kecil dan ekor yang sangat pendek dari tiran kerdil Myiornis sering kali membuat mereka mirip dengan bola kecil atau serangga. Sikatan tiran terbesar adalah tiran besar yang berusia 29 cm (11 in) dan 992 gram (2,187 pon) . Beberapa spesies seperti tiran ekor-pita, sikatan ekor-gunting, dan sikatan ekor-garpu mempunyai panjang total yang lebih besar — hingga 41 cm (16 in) setidaknya pada sikatan ekor-garpu — tetapi hal ini terutama disebabkan oleh ekornya yang sangat panjang; sikatan ekor-garpu memiliki bulu ekor terpanjang dari semua burung yang diketahui dibandingkan dengan ukurannya (ini mengacu pada bulu ekor sebenarnya, jangan bingung dengan pita ekor memanjang seperti yang terlihat pada beberapa keluarga galliform Phasianidae ).

Kekayaan spesies Tyrannidae, jika dibandingkan dengan habitatnya, sangat bervariasi, meskipun sebagian besar habitat darat di Amerika memiliki setidaknya beberapa burung ini. Habitat hutan tropis dataran rendah yang selalu hijau dan hutan pegunungan yang selalu hijau memiliki keanekaragaman spesies situs tunggal tertinggi sementara banyak habitat termasuk sungai, hutan palem, hutan pasir putih, tepi hutan tropis gugur, hutan beriklim bagian selatan, tepi hutan beriklim bagian selatan, semi-lembab/lembab semak belukar, dan padang rumput beriklim utara memiliki keanekaragaman spesies tunggal terendah. Variasi antara yang tertinggi dan terendah sangatlah ekstrim; Sembilan puluh spesies dapat ditemukan di hutan tropis dataran rendah yang selalu hijau, sedangkan jumlah spesies yang dapat ditemukan di habitat yang disebutkan di atas biasanya hanya dalam satu digit. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh semakin sedikitnya relung yang ditemukan di wilayah tertentu sehingga semakin sedikit pula tempat yang dapat dihuni oleh spesies tersebut.

Spesialisasi Tyrannidae di antara habitatnya sangat kuat di hutan tropis dataran rendah yang selalu hijau dan hutan pegunungan yang selalu hijau. Oleh karena itu, tipe habitat ini menunjukkan spesialisasi terbesar. Penghitungannya berbeda berdasarkan tiga spesies (hutan tropis dataran rendah yang selalu hijau memiliki 49 spesies endemik dan hutan pegunungan yang selalu hijau memiliki 46 spesies endemik). Dapat diasumsikan bahwa keduanya memiliki tingkat spesialisasi yang serupa.

Keluarga ini berisi 447 spesies yang terbagi dalam 104 genera . [5] Daftar lengkap, dapat diurutkan berdasarkan nama umum dan binomial, ada di daftar spesies penangkap lalat tiran . Spesies dalam genera Tityra, Pachyramphus, Laniocera dan Xenopsaris sebelumnya ditempatkan dalam keluarga ini, namun bukti menunjukkan bahwa mereka termasuk dalam keluarga mereka sendiri, Tityridae, [6] di mana mereka sekarang ditempatkan oleh SACC .

Image Genus Species Piprites Cabanis, 1847
  • Wing-barred piprites (Piprites chloris)
  • Grey-headed piprites (Piprites griseiceps)
  • Black-capped piprites (Piprites pileata)
Phyllomyias Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Planalto tyrannulet, Phyllomyias fasciatus
  • Yungas tyrannulet, Phyllomyias weedeni
  • Rough-legged tyrannulet, Phyllomyias burmeisteri
  • White-fronted tyrannulet, Phyllomyias zeledoni
  • Greenish tyrannulet, Phyllomyias virescens
  • Reiser's tyrannulet, Phyllomyias reiseri
  • Urich's tyrannulet, Phyllomyias urichi
  • Sclater's tyrannulet, Phyllomyias sclateri
  • Grey-capped tyrannulet, Phyllomyias griseocapilla
  • Sooty-headed tyrannulet, Phyllomyias griseiceps
  • Plumbeous-crowned tyrannulet, Phyllomyias plumbeiceps
  • Black-capped tyrannulet, Phyllomyias nigrocapillus
  • Ashy-headed tyrannulet, Phyllomyias cinereiceps
  • Tawny-rumped tyrannulet, Phyllomyias uropygialis
Tyrannulus Vieillot, 1816
  • Yellow-crowned tyrannulet,Tyrannulus elatus
Myiopagis Salvin & Godman, 1888
  • Gray-headed elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps)
  • Choco elaenia (Myiopagis parambae)
  • Amazonian elaenia (Myiopagis cinerea)
  • Jamaican elaenia (Myiopagis cotta)
  • Yellow-crowned elaenia (Myiopagis flavivertex)
  • Forest elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii)
  • Foothill elaenia (Myiopagis olallai)
  • Pacific elaenia (Myiopagis subplacens)
  • Greenish elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata)
Elaenia Sundevall, 1836
  • Yellow-bellied elaenia, Elaenia flavogaster
  • Caribbean elaenia, Elaenia martinica
  • Large elaenia, Elaenia spectabilis
  • Noronha elaenia, Elaenia ridleyana
  • White-crested elaenia, Elaenia albiceps
  • Chilean elaenia, Elaenia chilensis
  • Small-billed elaenia, Elaenia parvirostris
  • Olivaceous elaenia, Elaenia mesoleuca
  • Slaty elaenia, Elaenia strepera
  • Mottle-backed elaenia, Elaenia gigas
  • Brownish elaenia, Elaenia pelzelni
  • Plain-crested elaenia, Elaenia cristata
  • Lesser elaenia, Elaenia chiriquensis
  • Coopmans's elaenia, Elaenia brachyptera
  • Rufous-crowned elaenia, Elaenia ruficeps
  • Mountain elaenia, Elaenia frantzii
  • Highland elaenia, Elaenia obscura
  • Small-headed elaenia, Elaenia sordida
  • Great elaenia, Elaenia dayi
  • Sierran elaenia, Elaenia pallatangae
  • Tepui elaenia, Elaenia olivina
  • Greater Antillean elaenia, Elaenia fallax
Ornithion Hartlaub, 1853
  • Brown-capped tyrannulet (Ornithion brunneicapillus)
  • White-lored tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme)
  • Yellow-bellied tyrannulet (Ornithion semiflavum)
Camptostoma P.L. Sclater, 1857
  • Northern beardless tyrannulet, Camptostoma imberbe
  • Southern beardless tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum
Suiriri d'Orbigny, 1840
  • Suiriri flycatcher, Suiriri suiriri
Mecocerculus P.L. Sclater, 1862
  • White-throated tyrannulet, Mecocerculus leucophrys
  • White-tailed tyrannulet, Mecocerculus poecilocercus
  • Buff-banded tyrannulet, Mecocerculus hellmayri
  • Rufous-winged tyrannulet, Mecocerculus calopterus
  • Sulphur-bellied tyrannulet, Mecocerculus minor
  • White-banded tyrannulet, Mecocerculus stictopterus
Anairetes Reichenbach, 1850
  • Ash-breasted tit-tyrant, Anairetes alpinus
  • Black-crested tit-tyrant, Anairetes nigrocristatus
  • Pied-crested tit-tyrant, Anairetes reguloides
  • Yellow-billed tit-tyrant, Anairetes flavirostris
  • Juan Fernández tit-tyrant, Anairetes fernandezianus
  • Tufted tit-tyrant, Anairetes parulus
Uromyias Hellmayr, 1927
  • Agile tit-tyrant, Uromyias agilis
  • Unstreaked tit-tyrant, Uromyias agraphia
Serpophaga Gould, 1839
  • Torrent tyrannulet (Serpophaga cinerea)
  • River tyrannulet (Serpophaga hypoleuca)
  • Sooty tyrannulet (Serpophaga nigricans)
  • White-crested tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata)
  • Straneck's tyrannulet (Serpophaga griseicapilla)
Nesotriccus Townsend, CH, 1895
  • Southern mouse-colored tyrannulet, Nesotriccus murinus
  • Northern mouse-colored tyrannulet, Nesotriccus incomtus
  • Cocos tyrannulet, Nesotriccus ridgwayi
  • Tumbesian tyrannulet, Nesotriccus tumbezanus
  • Maranon tyrannulet, Nesotriccus maranonicus
Capsiempis Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Yellow tyrannulet, Capsiempis flaveola
Polystictus Reichenbach, 1850
  • Bearded tachuri (Polystictus pectoralis)
  • Grey-backed tachuri (Polystictus superciliaris)
Pseudocolopteryx Lillo, 1905
  • Crested doradito (Pseudocolopteryx sclateri)
  • Subtropical doradito (Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis)
  • Dinelli's doradito (Pseudocolopteryx dinelliana)
  • Warbling doradito (Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris)
  • Ticking doradito (Pseudocolopteryx citreola)
Pseudotriccus Taczanowski & Berlepsch, 1885
  • Bronze-olive pygmy tyrant (Pseudotriccus pelzelni)
  • Rufous-headed pygmy tyrant (Pseudotriccus ruficeps)
  • Hazel-fronted pygmy tyrant (Pseudotriccus simplex)
Corythopis Sundevall, 1836
  • Ringed antpipit, Corythopis torquatus
  • Southern antpipit, Corythopis delalandi
Euscarthmus Wied-Neuwied, 1831
  • Fulvous-crowned scrub tyrant, Euscarthmus meloryphus
  • Fulvous-faced scrub tyrant, Euscarthmus fulviceps
  • Rufous-sided scrub tyrant, Euscarthmus rufomarginatus
Pseudelaenia W. Lanyon, 1988
  • Grey-and-white tyrannulet (Pseudelaenia leucospodia)
Stigmatura Sclater & Salvin, 1866
  • Lesser wagtail-tyrant (Stigmatura napensis)
  • Bahia wagtail-tyrant (Stigmatura bahiae)
  • Greater wagtail-tyrant (Stigmatura budytoides)
    • Caatinga wagtail-tyrant (Stigmatura (budytoides) gracilis)
Zimmerius Traylor, 1977
  • Guatemalan tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus)
  • Mistletoe tyrannulet (Zimmerius parvus)
  • Spectacled tyrannulet (Zimmerius improbus)
  • Venezuelan tyrannulet (Zimmerius petersi)
  • Bolivian tyrannulet (Zimmerius bolivianus)
  • Red-billed tyrannulet (Zimmerius cinereicapilla)
  • Mishana tyrannulet (Zimmerius villarejoi)
  • Chico's tyrannulet (Zimmerius chicomendesi)
  • Slender-footed tyrannulet (Zimmerius gracilipes)
  • Guianan tyrannulet (Zimmerius acer)
  • Golden-faced tyrannulet (Zimmerius chrysops)
  • Coopmans's tyrannulet (Zimmerius minimus)
  • Choco tyrannulet (Zimmerius albigularis)
  • Loja tyrannulet (Zimmerius flavidifrons)
  • Peruvian tyrannulet (Zimmerius viridiflavus)
Pogonotriccus Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Variegated bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus poecilotis
  • Chapman's bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus chapmani
  • Marble-faced bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus
  • Spectacled bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus orbitalis
  • Venezuelan bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus venezuelanus
  • Antioquia bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus lanyoni
  • Southern bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus eximius
  • São Paulo bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus paulista
  • Serra do Mar bristle tyrant, Pogonotriccus difficilis
Phylloscartes Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Mottle-cheeked tyrannulet, Phylloscartes ventralis
  • Alagoas tyrannulet, Phylloscartes ceciliae
  • Restinga tyrannulet, Phylloscartes kronei
  • Bahia tyrannulet, Phylloscartes beckeri
  • Panama tyrannulet, Phylloscartes flavovirens
  • Olive-green tyrannulet, Phylloscartes virescens
  • Ecuadorian tyrannulet, Phylloscartes gualaquizae
  • Black-fronted tyrannulet, Phylloscartes nigrifrons
  • Rufous-browed tyrannulet, Phylloscartes superciliaris
  • Rufous-lored tyrannulet, Phylloscartes flaviventris
  • Cinnamon-faced tyrannulet, Phylloscartes parkeri
  • Minas Gerais tyrannulet, Phylloscartes roquettei
  • Oustalet's tyrannulet, Phylloscartes oustaleti
  • Bay-ringed tyrannulet, Phylloscartes sylviolus
Mionectes Cabanis, 1844
  • Streak-necked flycatcher, Mionectes striaticollis
  • Olive-striped flycatcher, Mionectes galbinus
  • Olive-streaked flycatcher, Mionectes olivaceus
  • Ochre-bellied flycatcher, Mionectes oleagineus
  • McConnell's flycatcher, Mionectes macconnelli
  • Sierra de Lema flycatcher, Mionectes roraimae
  • Grey-hooded flycatcher, Mionectes rufiventris
Leptopogon Cabanis, 1844
  • Rufous-breasted flycatcher, Leptopogon rufipectus
  • Inca flycatcher, Leptopogon taczanowskii
  • Sepia-capped flycatcher, Leptopogon amaurocephalus
  • Slaty-capped flycatcher, Leptopogon superciliaris
Guyramemua Lopes et al., 2017
  • Chapada flycatcher (Guyramemua affine)
Sublegatus Sclater & Salvin, 1868
  • Northern scrub flycatcher (Sublegatus arenarum)
  • Southern scrub flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus)
  • Amazonian scrub flycatcher (Sublegatus obscurior)
Inezia Cherrie, 1909
  • Slender-billed inezia, Inezia tenuirostris
  • Plain inezia, Inezia inornata
  • Amazonian inezia, Inezia subflava
  • Pale-tipped inezia, Inezia caudata
Myiophobus Reichenbach, 1850
  • Olive-chested flycatcher (Myiophobus cryptoxanthus)
  • Flavescent flycatcher (Myiophobus flavicans)
  • Unadorned flycatcher (Myiophobus inornatus)
  • Orange-crested flycatcher (Myiophobus phoenicomitra)
  • Roraiman flycatcher (Myiophobus roraimae)
  • Bran-colored flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus)
  • Mouse-gray flycatcher (Myiophobus crypterythrus)
  • Rufescent flycatcher (Myiophobus rufescens)
Nephelomyias (Ohlson, Fjeldsa and Ericson, 2009)
  • Orange-banded flycatcher (Nephelomyias lintoni)
  • Ochraceous-breasted flycatcher (Nephelomyias ochraceiventris)
  • Handsome flycatcher (Nephelomyias pulcher)
Myiotriccus Ridgway, 1905
  • Ornate flycatcher (Myiotriccus ornatus)
Tachuris Lafresnaye, 1836
  • Many-coloured rush tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra)
Culicivora Swainson, 1827
  • Sharp-tailed grass tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta)
Hemitriccus Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Snethlage's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus minor
  • Boat-billed tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus josephinae
  • Flammulated bamboo tyrant, Hemitriccus flammulatus
  • Drab-breasted bamboo tyrant, Hemitriccus diops
  • Brown-breasted bamboo tyrant, Hemitriccus obsoletus
  • White-eyed tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus zosterops
  • Zimmer's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus minimus
  • Eye-ringed tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus orbitatus
  • Johannes's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus iohannis
  • Stripe-necked tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus striaticollis
  • Hangnest tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus nidipendulus
  • Yungas tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus spodiops
  • Pearly-vented tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer
  • Pelzeln's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus inornatus
  • Black-throated tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus granadensis
  • Buff-throated tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus rufigularis
  • Cinnamon-breasted tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus
  • Buff-breasted tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus mirandae
  • Kaempfer's tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus kaempferi
  • Fork-tailed tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus furcatus
  • White-bellied tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus griseipectus
  • Acre tody-tyrant, Hemitriccus cohnhafti
Myiornis Bertoni, A.W., 1901
  • White-bellied pygmy tyrant (Myiornis albiventris)
  • Eared pygmy tyrant (Myiornis auricularis)
  • Black-capped pygmy tyrant (Myiornis atricapillus)
  • Short-tailed pygmy tyrant (Myiornis ecaudatus)
Oncostoma P.L. Sclater, 1862
  • Northern bentbill (Oncostoma cinereigulare)
  • Southern bentbill (Oncostoma olivaceum)
Lophotriccus Berlepsch, 1884
  • Scale-crested pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus pileatus
  • Double-banded pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus vitiosus
  • Long-crested pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus eulophotes
  • Helmeted pygmy tyrant, Lophotriccus galeatus
Atalotriccus Ridgway, 1905
  • Pale-eyed pygmy tyrant (Atalotriccus pilaris)
Poecilotriccus Berlepsch, 1884
  • Rufous-crowned tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus ruficeps
  • Lulu's tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus luluae
  • White-cheeked tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus albifacies
  • Black-and-white tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus capitalis
  • Buff-cheeked tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus senex
  • Ruddy tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus russatus
  • Ochre-faced tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps
  • Smoky-fronted tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus fumifrons
  • Rusty-fronted tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus latirostris
  • Slaty-headed tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus sylvia
  • Golden-winged tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus calopterus
  • Black-backed tody-flycatcher, Poecilotriccus pulchellus
Taeniotriccus Berlepsch & Hartert, 1902
  • Black-chested tyrant (Taeniotriccus andrei)
Todirostrum – typical tody-flycatchers Lesson, 1831
  • Spotted tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum maculatum
  • Yellow-lored tody-flycatcher or grey-headed tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum poliocephalum
  • Maracaibo tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum viridanum
  • Black-headed tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum nigriceps
  • Painted tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum pictum
  • Common tody-flycatcher or black-fronted tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum cinereum
  • Yellow-browed tody-flycatcher, Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum
Cnipodectes P.L. Sclater & Salvin, 1873
  • Brownish twistwing (Cnipodectes subbrunneus)
  • Rufous twistwing (Cnipodectes superrufus).
Rhynchocyclus Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Eye-ringed flatbill, Rhynchocyclus brevirostris
  • Pacific flatbill, Rhynchocyclus pacificus
  • Eastern olivaceous flatbill, Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
  • Western olivaceous flatbill, Rhynchocyclus aequinoctialis
  • Fulvous-breasted flatbill, Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus
Tolmomyias Hellmayr, 1927
  • Yellow-olive flatbill, Tolmomyias sulphurescens
  • Orange-eyed flatbill, Tolmomyias traylori
  • Yellow-margined flatbill, Tolmomyias assimilis
  • Yellow-winged flatbill, Tolmomyias flavotectus
  • Grey-crowned flatbill, Tolmomyias poliocephalus
  • Ochre-lored flatbill, Tolmomyias flaviventris
  • Olive-faced flatbill, Tolmomyias viridiceps
Calyptura Swainson, 1832
  • Kinglet calyptura (Calyptura cristata)
Platyrinchus Desmarest, 1805
  • Cinnamon-crested spadebill, Platyrinchus saturatus
  • Stub-tailed spadebill, Platyrinchus cancrominus
  • Yellow-throated spadebill, Platyrinchus flavigularis
  • Golden-crowned spadebill, Platyrinchus coronatus
  • White-throated spadebill, Platyrinchus mystaceus
  • White-crested spadebill, Platyrinchus platyrhynchos
  • Russet-winged spadebill, Platyrinchus leucoryphus
Neopipo Sclater & Salvin, 1869
  • Cinnamon manakin-tyrant (Neopipo cinnamomea)
Pyrrhomyias Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Cinnamon flycatcher (Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus)
HirundineaOrbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837
  • Cliff flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea)
Lathrotriccus Lanyon,W & Lanyon,S, 1986
  • Euler's flycatcher, Lathrotriccus euleri
    • Grenadan Euler's flycatcher, Lathrotriccus euleri flaviventris - formerly Empidonax euleri johnstonei; extinct (early 1950s)
  • Grey-breasted flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus
Aphanotriccus Ridgway, 1905
  • Tawny-chested flycatcher or Salvin's flycatcher, Aphanotriccus capitalis
  • Black-billed flycatcher, or Nelson's flycatcher Aphanotriccus audax
Cnemotriccus Hellmayr, 1927
  • Fuscous flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus)
Xenotriccus Dwight & Griscom, 1927
  • Belted flycatcher (Xenotriccus callizonus)
  • Pileated flycatcher (Xenotriccus mexicanus)
Sayornis – phoebes Bonaparte, 1854
  • Eastern phoebe — Sayornis phoebe
  • Black phoebe — Sayornis nigricans
  • Say's phoebe — Sayornis saya
Mitrephanes Coues, 1882
  • Northern tufted flycatcher, Mitrephanes phaeocercus
  • Olive tufted flycatcher, Mitrephanes olivaceus
Contopus Cabanis, 1855
  • Olive-sided flycatcher, C. cooperi
  • Greater pewee, C. pertinax
  • Dark pewee, C. lugubris
  • Smoke-colored pewee, C. fumigatus
  • Ochraceous pewee, C. ochraceus
  • Western wood pewee, C. sordidulus
  • Eastern wood pewee, C. virens
  • Northern tropical pewee, C. bogotensis
  • Southern tropical pewee, C. cinereus
  • Tumbes pewee, C. punensis (split from C. cinereus)
  • White-throated pewee, C. albogularis
  • Blackish pewee, C. nigrescens
  • Cuban pewee, C. caribaeus
  • Hispaniolan pewee, C. hispaniolensis
  • Jamaican pewee, C. pallidus
  • Lesser Antillean pewee, C. latirostris
Empidonax Cabanis, 1855
  • Yellow-bellied flycatcher, Empidonax flaviventris
  • Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens
  • Alder flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum
  • Willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii
  • White-throated flycatcher, Empidonax albigularis
  • Least flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
  • Hammond's flycatcher, Empidonax hammondii
  • American grey flycatcher, Empidonax wrightii
  • American dusky flycatcher, Empidonax oberholseri
  • Pine flycatcher, Empidonax affinis
  • Western flycatcher, Empidonax difficilis
  • Yellowish flycatcher, Empidonax flavescens
  • Buff-breasted flycatcher, Empidonax fulvifrons
  • Black-capped flycatcher, Empidonax atriceps
Pyrocephalus Gould, 1839
  • Scarlet flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)
  • Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus obscurus)
  • Darwin's flycatcher (Pyrocephalus nanus)
  • ✝San Cristóbal flycatcher (Pyrocephalus dubius)
Ochthornis P.L. Sclater, 1888
  • Drab water tyrant (Ochthornis littoralis)
Satrapa Strickland, 1844
  • Yellow-browed tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys)
Syrtidicola Chesser et al, 2020
  • Little ground tyrant (Syrtidicola fluviatilis)
Muscisaxicola – ground tyrants Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837
  • Spot-billed ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola maculirostris
  • White-fronted ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola albifrons
  • Ochre-naped ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola flavinucha
  • Paramo ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola alpinus
  • Taczanowski's ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola griseus
  • Cinereous ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola cinereus
  • Rufous-naped ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola rufivertex
  • Dark-faced ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola maclovianus
  • White-browed ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola albilora
  • Cinnamon-bellied ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola capistratus
  • Puna ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola juninensis
  • Black-fronted ground tyrant, Muscisaxicola frontalis
Lessonia Swainson, 1832
  • Andean negrito, Lessonia oreas
  • Austral negrito, Lessonia rufa
Hymenops Lesson, 1828
  • Spectacled tyrant (Hymenops perspicillatus)
Knipolegus F. Boie, 1826
  • Blue-billed black tyrant, Knipolegus cyanirostris
  • Jelski's black tyrant, Knipolegus signatus
  • Plumbeous tyrant, Knipolegus cabanisi
  • Cinereous tyrant, Knipolegus striaticeps
  • White-winged black tyrant, Knipolegus aterrimus
  • Hudson's black tyrant, Knipolegus hudsoni
  • Rufous-tailed tyrant, Knipolegus poecilurus
  • Riverside tyrant, Knipolegus orenocensis
  • Amazonian black tyrant, Knipolegus poecilocercus
  • Crested black tyrant, Knipolegus lophotes
  • Velvety black tyrant, Knipolegus nigerrimus
  • Sao Francisco black tyrant or Caatinga black tyrant, Knipolegus franciscanus
Cnemarchus Ridgway, 1905
  • Red-rumped bush tyrant (Cnemarchus erythropygius)
  • Rufous-webbed bush tyrant (Cnemarchus rufipennis)
Xolmis F. Boie, 1826
  • White-rumped monjita (Xolmis velatus)
  • White monjita (Xolmis irupero)
Pyrope Cabanis & Heine, 1860
  • Fire-eyed diucon (Pyrope pyrope)
Nengetus Swainson, 1827
  • Grey monjita (Nengetus cinereus)
Neoxolmis Hellmayr, 1927
  • Black-crowned monjita (Neoxolmis coronatus)
  • Rusty-backed monjita (Neoxolmis rubetra)
  • Salinas monjita (Neoxolmis salinarum)
  • Chocolate-vented tyrant (Neoxolmis rufiventris)
Myiotheretes Reichenbach, 1850
  • Streak-throated bush tyrant (Myiotheretes striaticollis)
  • Rufous-bellied bush tyrant (Myiotheretes fuscorufus)
  • Santa Marta bush tyrant (Myiotheretes pernix)
  • Smoky bush tyrant (Myiotheretes fumigatus)
Agriornis – shrike-tyrants Gould, 1839
  • Black-billed shrike-tyrant, Agriornis montanus
  • Lesser shrike-tyrant, Agriornis murinus
  • White-tailed shrike-tyrant, Agriornis albicauda
  • Grey-bellied shrike-tyrant, Agriornis micropterus
  • Great shrike-tyrant, Agriornis lividus
Gubernetes Such, 1825
  • Streamer-tailed tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa)
Muscipipra Lesson, 1831
  • Shear-tailed grey tyrant (Muscipipra vetula)
Fluvicola Swainson, 1827
  • Pied water tyrant, Fluvicola pica
  • Black-backed water tyrant, Fluvicola albiventer
  • Masked water tyrant, Fluvicola nengeta
Arundinicola d'Orbigny, 1840
  • White-headed marsh tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala)
Heteroxolmis Lanyon, W, 1986
  • Black-and-white monjita (Heteroxolmis dominicanus)
Alectrurus Vieillot, 1816
  • Cock-tailed tyrant, Alectrurus tricolor
  • Strange-tailed tyrant, Alectrurus risora
Tumbezia Chapman, 1925
  • Tumbes tyrant (Tumbezia salvini)
Silvicultrix Lanyon, W, 1986
  • Crowned chat-tyrant, Silvicultrix frontalis
  • Kalinowski's chat-tyrant, Silvicultrix spodionota
  • Golden-browed chat-tyrant Silvicultrix pulchella
  • Yellow-bellied chat-tyrant Silvicultrix diadema
  • Jelski's chat-tyrant Silvicultrix jelskii
Ochthoeca Cabanis, 1847
  • Slaty-backed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris
  • Blackish chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca nigrita
  • Maroon-belted chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca thoracica
  • Rufous-breasted chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca rufipectoralis
  • Brown-backed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca fumicolor
  • Rufous-browed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca superciliosa
  • D'Orbigny's chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca oenanthoides
  • White-browed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca leucophrys
  • Piura chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca piurae
Colorhamphus Sundevall, 1872
  • Patagonian tyrant (Colorhamphus parvirostris)
Colonia
  • Long-tailed tyrant (Colonia colonus)
Muscigralla Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837
  • Short-tailed field tyrant (Muscigralla brevicauda)
Machetornis G.R. Gray, 1841
  • Cattle tyrant (Machetornis rixosa)
Legatus P.L. Sclater, 1859
  • Piratic flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius)
Phelpsia W. Lanyon, 1984
  • White-bearded flycatcher (Phelpsia inornata)
Myiozetetes P.L. Sclater, 1859
  • Rusty-margined flycatcher, Myiozetetes cayanensis
  • Social flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis
  • Grey-capped flycatcher, Myiozetetes granadensis
  • Dusky-chested flycatcher, Myiozetetes luteiventris
Pitangus Swainson, 1827
  • Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus)
Philohydor Lanyon, W, 1984
  • Lesser kiskadee (Philohydor lictor)
    • P. l. panamensis (Bangs & Penard, TE, 1918)
    • P. l. lictor (Lichtenstein, MHK, 1823)
Conopias Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • White-ringed flycatcher, Conopias albovittatus
  • Three-striped flycatcher, Conopias trivirgatus
  • Yellow-throated flycatcher, Conopias parvus
  • Lemon-browed flycatcher, Conopias cinchoneti
Myiodynastes Bonaparte, 1857
  • Golden-bellied flycatcher (Myiodynastes hemichrysus)
  • Golden-crowned flycatcher (Myiodynastes chrysocephalus)
  • Baird's flycatcher (Myiodynastes bairdii)
  • Sulphur-bellied flycatcher (Myiodynastes luteiventris)
  • Streaked flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus)
Megarynchus Thunberg, 1824
  • Boat-billed flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua)
Tyrannopsis Ridgway, 1905
  • Sulphury flycatcher (Tyrannopsis sulphurea)
Empidonomus Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Variegated flycatcher (Empidonomus varius)
Griseotyrannus W.E. Lanyon, 1984
  • Crowned slaty flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus)
Tyrannus Lacépède, 1799
  • Snowy-throated kingbird, Tyrannus niveigularis
  • White-throated kingbird, Tyrannus albogularis
  • Tropical kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus
  • Couch's kingbird, Tyrannus couchii
  • Cassin's kingbird, Tyrannus vociferans
  • Thick-billed kingbird, Tyrannus crassirostris
  • Western kingbird, Tyrannus verticalis
  • Scissor-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus forficatus
  • Fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus savana
  • Eastern kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus
  • Gray kingbird, Tyrannus dominicensis
  • Giant kingbird, Tyrannus cubensis
  • Loggerhead kingbird, Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Rhytipterna Reichenbach, 1850
  • Pale-bellied mourner (Rhytipterna immunda)
  • Greyish mourner (Rhytipterna simplex)
  • Rufous mourner (Rhytipterna holerythra)
Sirystes Cabanis & Heine, 1859
  • Sibilant sirystes, Sirystes sibilator
  • Western sirystes, Sirystes albogriseus
  • White-rumped sirystes, Sirystes albocinereus
  • Todd's sirystes, Sirystes subcanescens
Casiornis Des Murs , 1856
  • Rufous casiornis, Casiornis rufus
  • Ash-throated casiornis, Casiornis fuscus
Myiarchus Cabanis, 1844
  • Rufous flycatcher, Myiarchus semirufus
  • Yucatan flycatcher, Myiarchus yucatanensis
  • Sad flycatcher, Myiarchus barbirostris
  • Dusky-capped flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer
  • Swainson's flycatcher, Myiarchus swainsoni
  • Venezuelan flycatcher, Myiarchus venezuelensis
  • Panama flycatcher, Myiarchus panamensis
  • Short-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus ferox
  • Pale-edged flycatcher, Myiarchus cephalotes
  • Sooty-crowned flycatcher, Myiarchus phaeocephalus
  • Apical flycatcher, Myiarchus apicalis
  • Ash-throated flycatcher, Myiarchus cinerascens
  • Nutting's flycatcher, Myiarchus nuttingi
  • Great crested flycatcher, Myiarchus crinitus
  • Brown-crested flycatcher, Myiarchus tyrannulus
  • Grenada flycatcher, Myiarchus nugator
  • Galapagos flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris
  • Rufous-tailed flycatcher, Myiarchus validus
  • La Sagra's flycatcher, Myiarchus sagrae
  • Stolid flycatcher, Myiarchus stolidus
  • Lesser Antillean flycatcher, Myiarchus oberi
  • Puerto Rican flycatcher, Myiarchus antillarum
Ramphotrigon G.R. Gray, 1855
  • Large-headed flatbill, Ramphotrigon megacephalum
  • Flammulated flycatcher, Ramphotrigon flammulatum
  • Dusky-tailed flatbill, Ramphotrigon fuscicauda
  • Rufous-tailed flatbill, Ramphotrigon ruficauda
Attila Lesson, 1831
  • Rufous-tailed attila (Attila phoenicurus)
  • Cinnamon attila (Attila cinnamomeus)
  • Ochraceous attila (Attila torridus)
  • Citron-bellied attila (Attila citriniventris)
  • White-eyed attila (Attila bolivianus)
  • Grey-hooded attila (Attila rufus)
  • Bright-rumped attila (Attila spadiceus)