HMS Illustrious (87)

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SejarahBritania Raya

Illustrious sekitar tahun 1954

Nama Illustrious
Dipesan 13 April 1937
Pembangun Vickers-Armstrongs
Pasang lunas 27 April 1937
Diluncurkan 5 April 1939
Mulai berlayar 25 Mei 1940
Dipensiunkan Februari 1955
Tidak beroperasi Februari 1955
Identifikasi Nomor umbul: 87[1]
Motto
  • Vox non Incerta
  • (Latin: "No Uncertain Voice")[2]
Penghargaan Genova 1795, Jalan Basque 1809, Jawa 1811, Taranto 1940, Mediterania 1940–1942, Konvoi Malta 1940, Diego Suarez 1942, Salerno 1943, Sabang 1944, Palembang 1945, Okinawa 1945[3]
Nasib Dijual untuk dibongkar pada November 1956

HMS Illustrious adalah kapal induk milik Britania Raya yang dibangun sebelum Perang Dunia II. Ia tergabung dalam Armada Mediterania, dimana pencapaiannya yang paling terkenal yaitu berhasil menenggelamkan 1 kapal perang milik Italia (Conte di Cavour) dan membuat 2 kapal lainnya rusak parah (Littorio dan Caio Duilio) pada Pertempuran Taranto pada akhir tahun 1940.

Karier[sunting | sunting sumber]

Illustrious ikut serta dalam mendukung invasi Prancis Vichy di Madagaskar (Operasi Ironclad) pada awal 1942. Pada tahun 1951, dia membantu mengangkut pasukan untuk memadamkan kerusuhan di Siprus setelah runtuhnya Perjanjian Anglo-Mesir tahun 1936. Ia juga terlibat dalam pertempuran di Samudera Pasifik seperti Operasi Meridian.[4] Ia akhirnya dibongkar pada bulan November 1956.[5]

Skuadron yang pernah bertugas[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebuah pesawat Avenger bersiap untuk "dibom", Mei 1944, untuk penyerangan ke Surabaya, Jawa.
Sebuah torpedo sedang dimuat ke pesawat Swordfish.
Sebuah Seafire sedang dipersiapkan untuk uji coba dengan pendorong RATOG.
Skuadron Pesawat yang dioperasikan Bertugas (dari – sampai) Catatan
802 Hawker Sea Fury Juli – Agustus 1951 –[6]
806 Blackburn Skua
Fairey Fulmar
Grumman F4F Wildcat
11 Juni 1940 – 11 Januari 1941
29 Mei–19 Oktober 1942
–[7]
810 Fairey Swordfish
Fairey Barracuda
2–8 Desember 1941
10 Maret 1942 –
2 November 1944
–[8]
815 Fairey Swordfish
Grumman TBF Avenger
11 Juni 1940 – 10 Januari 1941
17 September – 14 Oktober 1954
–[9]
819 Fairey Swordfish 11 Juni 1940 – 10 Januari 1941 Dibubarkan[10]
829 Fairey Albacore
Fairey Swordfish
2–8 Desember 1941
7 Maret – 21 September 1942
Dibubarkan[11]
832 Grumman TBF Avenger 3–25 Mei 1944 –[12]
845 Grumman TBF Avenger 3–27 Mei 1944 –[13]
847 Fairey Barracuda 28 November 1943 – 18 Juni 1944 –[14]
854 Grumman TBF Avenger 1 Desember 1944 – 18 Mei 1945 –[15]
878 Grumman F4F Wildcat 8 Juni–18 Oktober 1943 –[16]
881 Grumman F4F Wildcat
Fairey Fulmar
15 Maret 1942 – 18 Februari 1943 –[17]
882 Grumman F4F Wildcat 22 Maret–7 September 1942 Digabung ke Skuadron 881[18]
890 Grumman F4F Wildcat 14 Juni–19 Oktober 1942 –[19]
894 Supermarine Seafire II 24 Juli–24 Agustus 1943
20 September–18 Oktober 1943
–[20]
1830 Vought F4U Corsair 9 Desember 1943 – 28 Juli 1945 Dibubarkan[21]
1833 Vought F4U Corsair 22 Desember 1943 – 28 Juli 1945 Dibubarkan[22]
1837 Vought F4U Corsair 10 Juni 1944 – 27 Juli 1944 Dipindahkan ke HMS Victorious[23]

Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Lenton, p. 713
  2. ^ Lyon, endpaper depan
  3. ^ McCart, p. 46
  4. ^ Brown 1971, p. 258; Brown, J. D., pp. 92–93; McCart, pp. 29–30
  5. ^ Brown 1971, pp. 263–64; McCart, pp. 42–46
  6. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 169–70
  7. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 185–86
  8. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 198, 200–01
  9. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 226–27
  10. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 240–41
  11. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 286–87
  12. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 296–97
  13. ^ Sturtivant, p. 316
  14. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 326–27
  15. ^ Sturtivant, p. 346
  16. ^ Sturtivant, p. 354
  17. ^ Sturtivant, p. 362
  18. ^ Sturtivant, pp. 363–64
  19. ^ Sturtivant, p. 376
  20. ^ Sturtivant, p. 386
  21. ^ Sturtivant, p. 406
  22. ^ Sturtivant, p. 413
  23. ^ Sturtivant, p. 417

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brown, David (1971). HMS Illustrious: Aircraft Carrier 1939–1956: Operational History. Warship Profile. 11. Windsor, UK: Profile Publications. OCLC 33202926.
  • Brown, David (1977). WWII Fact Files: Aircraft Carriers. New York: Arco Publishing. ISBN 0-668-04164-1.
  • Brown, Eric, Captain (May 1983). "Attacker – A Belated Beginning". Air International. Bromley, Kent, UK: The Air International. 22 (5): 233–41. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Brown, J. D. (2009). Carrier Operations in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-108-2.
  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
  • Cernuschi, Ernesto & O'Hara, Vincent P. (2010). "Taranto: The Raid and the Aftermath". Dalam Jordan, John. Warship 2010. London: Conway. hlm. 77–95. ISBN 978-1-84486-110-1.
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (edisi ke-Rev.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
  • Friedman, Norman (1988). British Carrier Aviation: The Evolution of the Ships and Their Aircraft. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-054-8.
  • Gustavsson, Håkan & Slongo, Ludovico (2010). Desert Prelude: "Operation Compass". Sandomierz, Poland: Stratus. ISBN 978-83-61421-18-4.
  • Hobbs, David (2013). British Aircraft Carriers: Design, Development and Service Histories. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-138-0.
  • Hobbs, David (2011). The British Pacific Fleet: The Royal Navy's Most Powerful Strike Force. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-044-3.
  • Jackson, A. J. (1968). Blackburn Aircraft Since 1909. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-370-00053-6.
  • Lenton, H. T. (1998). British & Empire Warships of the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-048-7.
  • Lyon, D. J. (1971). HMS Illustrious: Aircraft Carrier 1939–1956: Technical History. Warship Profile. 10. Windsor, UK: Profile Publications. OCLC 42677169.
  • McCart, Neil (2000). The Illustrious & Implacable Classes of Aircraft Carrier 1940–1969. Cheltenham, UK: Fan Publications. ISBN 1-901225-04-6.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945: The Naval History of World War Two (edisi ke-Third Revised). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Shores, Christopher (1996). Dust Clouds in the Middle East: The Air War for East Africa, Iraq, Syria and Madagascar, 1940–42. London: Grub Street. ISBN 1-898697-37-X.
  • Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian & Malizia, Nicola (1987a). Air War for Yugoslavia, Greece, and Crete. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0-948817-07-0.
  • Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian & Malizia, Nicola (1987b). Malta: The Hurricane Years: 1940–41. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0-948817-06-2.
  • Smith, Peter C. (2008). Dive Bomber!: Aircraft, Technology, and Tactics in World War II. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-3454-4.
  • Stephen, Martin (1988). Sea Battles in Close-Up: World War 2. 1. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-556-6.
  • Sturtivant, Ray (1984). The Squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians). ISBN 0-85130-120-7.
  • Taylor, H. A. (1974). Fairey Aircraft Since 1915 (edisi ke-1988). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-208-7.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Chesneau, Roger (1995). Aircraft Carriers of the World, 1914 to the Present: An Illustrated Encyclopedia (edisi ke-New, Revised). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-902-2.
  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Armoured aircraft carrier action and damage reports, 1940–1945 Diarsipkan 2014-10-06 di Wayback Machine.
  • A crewman's story aboard the Illustrious, 1940–1941 Diarsipkan 2022-03-10 di Wayback Machine.
  • Maritimequest HMS Illustrious photo gallery Diarsipkan 2022-03-09 di Wayback Machine.